Adaptive Biotechnologies has reported results from three studies where its sensitive T-Detect COVID test demonstrated the capability to differentiate between SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine response as well as identify Lyme disease.
The studies showed the possible clinical usage of T-cell testing, leveraging T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire characterisation for infectious diseases.
The latest real-world data for SARS-CoV-2 showed that T-Detect COVID is capable of identifying previous infection nearly one year after diagnosis in some individuals.
Furthermore, natural Covid-19 infection can be differentiated from response to the vaccine by leveraging T-cell testing.
The first study analysed T-Detect COVID’s clinical performance.
It is the first-ever test for T-cell available in the US to validate fresh or previous Covid-19 infection using whole blood samples.
Study findings and real-world data establish already reported data.
These findings show the detectable T-cell response durability from five months after a preliminary positive reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test result to approximately 12 months in a few evaluable subjects.
The TCR repertoire characterisation produced a quantitative picture of the T-cell response to the virus, which was demonstrated in another study.
It also showed the test’s capability to differentiate between a vaccine response and a natural infection.
TCR repertoire characterisation for Lyme disease was found to be approximately two-fold more sensitive compared to standard two-tiered testing (STTT) in early detection of the disease.
Adaptive collaborated with Microsoft in 2018 to develop the TCR-Antigen Map, which is a map of the immune system.
Leveraging immune sequencing, computational modelling and machine learning, this method can map T-cell receptor sequences to antigens for infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmune ailments.
T-Detect requires a simple blood draw and uses the map to aid in early detection and monitoring of diseases and offer vital information on an individual’s immunity.
Microsoft immunomics general manager Jonathan Carlson said: “These results demonstrate transformative potential of combining biology with Cloud-scale machine learning to unlock the information encoded by our immune systems.
“T-Detect COVID is an important proof-of-concept for the clinical and scientific utility of T-cell testing and we are thrilled to show the feasibility of the underlying technology in another infectious disease.”