Scientists at the National University of Science and Technology (NUST) MISIS in Russia have developed a new membrane test strip for quantitative immune chromatography rapid tests to rapidly and accurately detect an acute myocardial infarction by analysing blood for the presence of disease markers.
The test strips can also be used to diagnose sepsis, estimate pregnancy deadlines, as well as identify viral and bacterial infections.
Considered easy to use, immunochromatography-based tests are designed to detect individual compounds in biological liquids and report their presence in the form of colouring or fluorescence on the test-strip.
While developing their bioanalytical system, the research team combined principles from both qualitative and quantitative immune chromatography tests to ensure improved quality and accuracy of results.
The researchers enhanced the rapid testing technology to facilitate detection and visual estimation of certain substances and their number in the body.
One or more drops of biosample can be added to the new test strip to get a quantitative result, where the number of coloured test lines in the device’s analytical area can be counted.
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The biological sample flows on the test strip segment containing a conjugate with gold nanoparticles or quantum dots of antibodies, which are captured and passed through an analytical membrane.
NUST MISIS Functional Nanosystems and High Temperature Materials department senior fellow Alexander Osipov said: “The binding of labelled immunocomplexes on the carrier, which is visually registered as forms of coloured cross lines takes place due to the specific interactions of ‘antibody-antigen’.
“The higher the content of the determining substance in the sample, the greater the number of lines that will appear in the analytical area.”
“The simultaneous determination of early fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABP) and late (tropotin I) cardiac markers with the use of our new type of rapid-test increases the efficiency of diagnoses and allows doctors to identify hidden forms of heart attacks.”